How To Grow Trees Sideways
To make a frame for espalier, secure 3mm braided wire to a wall or between timber posts, adding turnbuckles to tighten the wires as the plant grows.
For a trellis
Set two timber posts at the mature width of the tree. Attach screw eyes to the posts then thread the wire, securing the ends with wire rope grips. Position the first wire 400mm above the ground then 350mm apart.
For a wall
Build a trellis in front, leaving 300mm between the wires and the wall for good airflow and to stop the tree scraping the surface.